STM32 Timers – Output Compare

Keywords: Embedded systems, ARM, STM32F4, Timers, Counter

Code Link: Source Code Github Keil- Bare-Metal

Code Link: Source Code Github Keil- HAL Libraries

In the introductory tutorial, we discussed main building blocks of STM32 Timers. The tutorial can be accessed via the following link.

The heart of STM32 Timer is known as Timer Kernel or Time Base. The Timer kernel (Time Base) lets you count a specific number of counts. For more details on configuring and programming Time Base, refer to the following tutorial.

With Timer Base, Timers can only count specific counts as configured and subsequently can generate single overflow/update event. The problem is normally Microcontrollers have limited onchip timers. Adding more timers not only increases complexity but also power consumption which itself is one of the major constraint in embedded systems. In order to solve the problem, each timer hardware (depends on timer e.g. Basic Timer, GP Timers, Advanced Timers) is equipped with addition hardware knows as Timer Channels. Let’s introduce Timer channels before moving further to channel programming. so:

  • What is STM32 Timers Channels?

The Timer Channels Unit:

A timer channel is the part of timer hardware by means of which a timer peripheral can interact with its onchip/offchip hardware.

Each timer can drive up to four different channels that can be configured as:

  1. Input Capture
  2. Output Compare
  3. PWM Mode
  4. One-pulse Output

The focus of this tutorial is on Output Compare. Other features like Input Capture, PWM etc. will be discussed in their relevant tutorials.

Timer Channels as Output Compare: [4]

When configured as an output, the timer channel is used to generate a set of possible waveforms. As long as the channel is configured in output mode, the content of the TIMx_CCRy channel register is compared to the content of the timer counter.

Based on the results of this continuous logic comparison and based on the configured output sub-mode (like PWM1 mode or Inactive mode), the timer channel internal output OCyREF is either set or reset.

The timer channel internal output OCyREF is then fed into the channel output stage. The channel output stage applies a set of conditioning operations on the OCyREF signal based on a set of configured parameters (like channel polarity configuration or dead-time generation among others).

The output signal of the channel output stage is mapped to the microcontroller pins as an alternate function.

Figure-1: STM32F4xx Timers Output Compare internal logic

That’s enough introduction to Timers channels configured as output. Let’s get back to programming Timers channel.

In this tutorial we will configure all four channels of Timer-4 in Output Compare mode. The reason why Timer-4 is chosen is because Timer-4 channels output stage signals are mapped to GPIOD Pin#12,13,14,15 as alternate function[2], Figure-2; also the GPIOD Pin#12,13,14,15 are connected to four onboard separate LEDs. In a cycle of 500ms each LED is Blinked by Timer-4 Output Compare channel.

The tutorial requires programming the following steps:

  1. Configure GPIOD LED Pins as Alternate Function AF2 (Timer-4 function)
  2. Configure Time base
  3. Configure Timer Channel

1. Configuring GPIO as Alternate Function:

The first step is to configure GPIOD Pin#12,13,14,15 as an alternate function so that GPIO pins are not available for general purpose IO. In order to internally connect GPIOD pins to Timer-4 output compare signal (As alternate Function), GPIOD pins must be configured to AF2. For more details on how to configure GPIO Pins as alternate function, refer to the following tutorial:

Figure-2: GPIOD Pins#12,13,14,15 Alternate Function Implementation

2. Time Base Configuration:

For illustration purpose we have programmed Timer-4 time-base to count time equal to 500ms time slot. The time-base continuous counts for 500ms delay. Programming time-base is straight forward and well explained in before mentioned tutorial with link given bellow.

After each 125ms, one of four channels, CH1,2,3,4 sequentially toggles GPIOD Pins#12,13,14,15 respectively, Figure-3.

Figure-3: Timer-4 channels triggering points.

3. Configuring Timer Channels:

The last step, which is the heart of this tutorial, is configuring and programming the timer channels. We will explain this portion in detail.

Programming Timer channel is very simple and straight forward. Following are the steps to configure Timer channel.

  1. Configuring Channel as an Output Compare
  2. Configuring Channel Trigger Points
  3. Starting Output Compare Logic

3.1 Configuring Channel as an Output Compare:

Before a Timer channel can be used, the channel direction needs to be configured properly as input/output. Channel direction can be selected by setting CCxS-bits in TIMy_CCMRz register where x=Channel No (1-4), y=Timer No, z=1(CH#1,2),2(CH#3,4)-Figure4,5.

Figure-4: TIMx capture/compare mode register 1 (TIMx_CCMR1)
Figure-5: TIMx capture/compare mode register 2 (TIMx_CCMR2)

In order to set channel as output, CCxS-bits must be cleared for channel x. By default, channel is configured as output.

/*
  Set all four channel to output mode (default mode)
*/
__clearbit(TIM4->CCMR1, 0U);
__clearbit(TIM4->CCMR1, 1U);

__clearbit(TIM4->CCMR1, 8U);
__clearbit(TIM4->CCMR1, 9U);

__clearbit(TIM4->CCMR2, 0U);
__clearbit(TIM4->CCMR2, 1U);

__clearbit(TIM4->CCMR2, 8U);
__clearbit(TIM4->CCMR2, 9U);

The next step is to set what should be done to OCxREF signal. According to [3], following states can be set via OCxM[2:0] when TIMx_CNT=TIMx_CCR (described later).

  • frozen – signal state is ignored, nothing happens
  • set active (forced high)
  • set inactive (forced low)
  • toggled

The following table summarizes Output Compare Modes.

OCxM[2:0]OCxREF
000Frozen
001Set High on match
010Set Low on match
011Toggle
100Force inactive level – OCxREF is forced low.
101Force active level – OCxREF is forced high.
110PWM mode 1
111PWM mode 2

In our case, we want to toggle OCxREF when TIMx_CNT=TIMx_CCR so OCxM[2:0] need to be set to 0b011.

/*
  Timer channel to toggle OCxREF signal upon 
  compare. Default value OCxM[2:0] = 0b000
*/
__setbit(TIM4->CCMR1, 4U);
__setbit(TIM4->CCMR1, 5U);

__setbit(TIM4->CCMR1, 12U);
__setbit(TIM4->CCMR1, 13U);

__setbit(TIM4->CCMR2, 4U);
__setbit(TIM4->CCMR2, 5U);

__setbit(TIM4->CCMR2, 12U);
__setbit(TIM4->CCMR2, 13U);

3.2 Configuring Channel Trigger Points:

As per the tutorial requirement describe earlier (Figure-3), channel-1 should trigger and toggle CH1REF (connected to GPIOD Pin#12) at 125ms (count=2000) from the time base starting point. Similarly Channel-2,3,4 should toggle GPIOD Pins#13,14,15 at 4000, 6000, and 8000 of TIM4_CNT register.

The triggering point for each channel can be set via TIMx capture/compare register (TIMx_CCRy) where x=timer no., y=Channel no. – Figure-6.

Figure-6: TIMx capture/compare register (TIMx_CCRy)
/*
   Set Compare Trigger Points
*/
TIM4->CCR1 = 2000U;
TIM4->CCR2 = 4000U;
TIM4->CCR3 = 6000U;
TIM4->CCR4 = 8000U;

3.3 Kick Start Output Compare Logic:

The last step is to start output compare logic for active comparison. This can be done by writing 1 to CCxE in TIMx capture/compare enable register (TIMx_CCER) – Figure-7.

Figure-7: TIMx capture/compare enable register (TIMx_CCER)
/*
   Enable Output Compare Channel
*/
__setbit(TIM4->CCER, 0U);
__setbit(TIM4->CCER, 4U);
__setbit(TIM4->CCER, 8U);
__setbit(TIM4->CCER, 12U);

For complete source code refer to the Github links given at the start of this tutorial.

Video demonstration:

[1] – Reference manual-RM0090



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    Other reliable sources for Bet9ja promo codes are affiliates of Bet9ja and also its official newsletters.
    Given below are three promotion codes that you can apply on Bet9ja.

    What are Bet9ja Booking Codes?
    Sometimes, you make all selections on the bet slip,
    but do not wish to pay immediately as you have not fully decided yet.
    In this case, you can simply ‘book the bet’ instead of
    finalizing it. When you book the bet in this fashion, a temporary Bet9ja code is generated, called
    the Booking code. Such Bet9ja booking codes can be
    used later on to access your bet selections and place the bet.
    You may make your selections today for an event that takes place tomorrow and get a code.
    The Bet9ja coupon code for today will be applicable tomorrow until the time the matches take place.

    The same rule applies when you get a Bet9ja coupon code for this week
    for a game that will take place next week. It cannot be considered an out-dated or old
    Bet9ja coupon in Nigeria unless the match has taken place.
    And for live betting, you will be able to
    place bets until the end of the game.

    How to book a bet on Bet9ja
    Booking bets is hassle-free on Bet9ja. If you are not a registered member, you can use the site as a guest.

    Browse the various leagues or tournaments and decide which match or event you want to bet
    on. When you have determined the outcomes to bet on,
    click the odds corresponding to them the same way
    you do when you want to place a bet. Your selections will be updated on the bet slip.
    Insert the amount you wish to stake and click the
    ‘Bet’ button. Immediately a booking coupon with a
    number exclusive to the current bet is displayed, which includes all
    the information about your bet. You can print or email the coupon for it to
    be used later on a Bet9ja shop or online to complete placing
    the bet.

    How to complete the bet with the Bet9ja booking codes
    When you have booked your bet, you can use the booking code
    received to retrieve the betting information later and to confirm it.

    There are multiple ways to do it: by contacting an offline
    Bet9ja agent in person and by presenting such codes as Bet9ja shop codes where the agent
    can check your result for you. Today Bet9ja booking code can be used to finalize your bet in a matter of seconds
    using the Bet9ja online portal. The Bet9ja coupon load can be
    done by inserting the coupon code in the box provided on the bet slip section at the
    top right of the web portal and clicking the ‘Load’ button. You may make modifications to the bet slip selections if required before you finalize the bet.
    If you have made a sufficient deposit to your Bet9ja account from your
    bank, you can complete the payment online and finish the process.

    Booking coupon information
    Let’s see what information a booking coupon carries once you have booked a bet.
    Along with the booking coupon presented online,
    you can see a ‘Print’ button so that you can print the coupon to have its hard copy.

    It also has a ‘Send the booking via email’ button to
    send the coupon to your email address. If you want to
    register an account, there is also a ‘Register’ button so that you can place bets online after that.

    The main part of the booking coupon consists of the following
    information, besides a bar code.

    Booking number. This is the number commonly known as the booking code.

    E.g., ZZC29RL. The date and time of the booking are
    also mentioned in it.

    New customers will enjoy live betting on sports markets on Bet9ja.

    They can sports bet on their phone mobile device (mobile app) on football
    matches, american football, horse racing, the premier league
    and more.

    Their wagering requirements include a minimum deposit of ₦100.

    Use the Bet9ja promotion code YOHAIG for a chance to win mini jackpots, titan jackpots, red titan jackpot
    or the gold titan jackpot.

  • The correct Bet9ja.com bonus code to get your NGN100,000 bonus funds is YOHAIG.

    The Bet9ja promotion code or bonus code will give you welcome bonus money and free bets with
    your successful first deposit.

    You can use your free get on sports betting, virtual
    sports, virtual football betting, virtual soccer game, virtual games, casino games,
    horse racing, european leagues, english premier league,
    american football, zoom soccer, football matches and
    other popular european leagues.

    Bet9ja is the largest Nigerian online bookmaker and it is
    owned by KC Gaming Networks Limited.Now that you’ve had a glimpse of what bonus offers are on the table, let’s now take things a little further
    and show you how you can actually apply the Bet9ja promo code YOHAIG to receive the offers.
    In order to successfully do this, you must first create a new Bet9Ja account, while
    entering the promo code during your sign-up process.
    Here are the necessary steps to sign up with the site:

    – Hit ‘Register’ on the homepage

    – Create a new username with a unique password to log
    in

    – Enter personal details – address, date of birth, full name,
    contact number

    – Specify the desired payment method (optional)

    – Type in our exclusive Bet9Ja promo code

    – Proceed to open the account

    Tip – you can actually complete the sign-up process through the
    main Bet9Ja desktop site or from the mobile platforms, but you will still need to enter the Bet9ja promo code *YOHAIG* in order
    to successfully redeem the welcome bonuses.

    Promotions with terms
    – Sports accumulator boost

    Sports betting is one of the leading products that the Bet9Ja site has
    available in 2020, and while this offer might not technically be a welcome bonus,
    it is one that both new and existing customers can claim.
    Basically, Bet9Ja will give you a percentage boost on any winning accumulator bet that consists of 5
    legs or more. The range for this boost starts at 5% and goes all
    the way up to 170%, with the increments going up by 5% for each additional leg of your bet.

    This offer is relatively free of restrictions, however, there is a stated condition that each leg of your bet must have odds that
    are above 1.20. This is pretty much the only stipulation,
    and you can include as many different sports as you like on the bet.

    – Main welcome bonus

    Here we have the main offer that you can redeem thanks to our Bet9Ja promo code.
    At the time of writing, all customers who sign up today can make the most of a 100% deposit match, where you can get as much as N100,000
    in free bonuses. In order to be eligible to receive this bonus, you
    must enter the Bet9Ja promo code as well as deposit a minimum of N100.
    Not only do you need to deposit this minimum amount of cash, but
    you must also wager your deposit through on a market where
    the minimum odds are 3.00.

    It is commonly the case in the African market where a
    sport betting welcome bonus does not carry any kind of restrictions.
    With that said, this offer actually has a restriction where you must meet a 15x wagering
    requirement before you can withdraw any kind of winnings.

    FAQs about the Platform & Bet9Ja Promo Code
    What are the conditions to open an account?

    The only stipulated conditions that you must meet in order to open a
    new Bet9Ja account is that you must be over the legal gambling age of
    18, and be able to show evidence of a registered Nigerian address.

    Am I definitely eligible for these welcome offers?

    Providing that you meet the requirements to open an account in the first place, and assuming
    that you do not currently have an account open with Bet9Ja,
    you are absolutely eligible to redeem the welcome
    offers discussed in this post.

    Is it easy to fund my account?

    Bet9Ja has made it particularly easy for all members to fund their accounts,
    as it has various deposit methods that you can use. As a
    matter of fact, there are over 20 methods you may
    use to successfully fund your account in 2020, which should provide you with a more than adequate range.

    Does Bet9Ja support live betting?

    Bet9Ja supports live betting in a big way, as it offers live betting
    markets for quite literally thousands of events on an annual basis.
    There is an entire section dedicated to live betting which you can browse when you like.

    Will I need to verify my account details?

    You will likely be asked to verify your account details if you decide to open a
    new Bet9Ja account, but this is pretty much a standard practice of the
    online betting industry. In order to verify your account,
    you will simply need to email through proof of address and proof of ID.

    Must I open a separate account to play casino games?

    You will not need to open a separate account in order to play any of the casino games, as
    once you have opened an account, you will then have
    access to all of the various products that Bet9Ja offers.

    Is it easy to contact customer support?

    It is very easy to contact customer support, and you can do so through several different methods.

    You can actually phone through to reach the team, send them a
    message on the website, and even contact them through social media.

    Does Bet9Ja give out bonuses for large sporting events?

    Bet9Ja is a site that tends to create new bonuses on a fairly regular basis, and when large sporting
    events do take place, it is very common to
    see bonuses that are tailored to the specific events.

    An Overview of the Platform

    Sportsbook details
    The Bet9Ja sportsbook is undoubtedly the best product that
    it currently supports, with more than 30 different sports that all
    members can actually bet on. As you can see, this is a rather significant range, and of course,
    you can bet on a number of sports that are highly popular among Nigerian sports bettors.
    This includes the likes of American football, hockey, soccer,
    tennis, esports, basketball, and baseball. You do not need to bet a particularly large amount to get started, and
    Bet9Ja has markets that are available for both live betting and pre-match betting.

    Casino details
    As impressive as the Bet9Ja sportsbook is, it goes without saying that you might not
    always want to bet on sports in order to enjoy your online account.
    This is precisely where the online casino library comes into play, as you can browse through more than 100 games
    that are mixed between live casino titles and virtual casino titles.
    This is a fairly solid range when you compare the Bet9Ja site to other competitors
    in the market, and to keep things interesting,
    you can explore titles here for live games, video slots, blackjack and roulette, poker,
    and several others.

    Of course, with such a decent selection available you may find it hard to
    actually choose a specific game to get started. With that in mind, we
    would recommend that you try the following games – Champions, Spin and Win, One Night in Vegas, and Rise of Anubis.

    User Experience
    From the moment that you land on the Bet9Ja site, it is apparent that you won’t really see much in the way of dynamic features
    or exceptional visuals. However, this simple yet effective appearance is actually quite handy when you
    are trying to find your way around the site. We
    quite enjoyed the fact that Bet9Ja has a clear banner at the top of the page where you can navigate through the major sections, and we feel that the site also presents the
    various sports and casino games quite well.

    There are three different methods that you can actually use to contact the Bet9Ja support team.
    All of these methods are absolutely free for you to use, and you
    have the choice between calling them up on a toll-free number, messaging them on Twitter, or messaging them through the main website.

    Banking Options with Bet9Ja
    Deposit

    Since Bet9Ja is an online betting site that deals in real money, it goes without saying that you must
    actually deposit some funds so that you can enjoy the
    site. You can make deposits through any of the following methods:

    – Polaris Bank

    – OPAY

    – Zenith

    – First Monie

    – Online bank transfer

    – Visa/MasterCard

    Do note that the methods we have outlined above are just a handful of
    the available methods you can actually use on the Bet9Ja site.
    In fact, there are more than 20 methods you may fund your account
    through, and the deposit minimum for each of these is
    N100.

    While it is beneficial to be able to deposit funds into your account easily, it is also beneficial to
    be able to cash out your funds easily when you are ready.
    This is precisely what Bet9Ja has been able to achieve,
    as you may use all of the methods we have identified above when you are ready to make a withdrawal.
    The minimum is slightly higher here as you need to withdraw
    over N1,000 for it to be processed, but on the flip side
    of the coin, Bet9Ja tends to pay out on all withdrawal requests in less than 24-hours.

    Bet9Ja Performance on Mobile: An Overview
    As is the case with most reputable betting sites these days, you can access your account through a mobile device with Bet9Ja.
    This can be done through the mobile app or through the optimized mobile site, and we’ve reviewed both below.

    In order to get the best functionality and performance when using your account from
    mobile, we would recommend using the Bet9Ja mobile app.
    There are actually two apps that you can download and they are divided by product.

    The first of these is a sportsbook app and the second is, of course, a casino app.
    Pretty much the entire range of casino games and sports
    can be enjoyed from the app, which is commendable.

    The mobile site isn’t as slick to use as the mobile app, but it still grants access to the entire site, which is always good.

    You can bet on pre-match markets, bet live, spin the reels on slots, and even enjoy live games on the mobile site.
    The only downside is that it isn’t quite as sharp as the mobile app.

    Good spread of products

    No option to email customer support

    Huge range of deposit methods

    Higher withdrawal minimum than most

    Reasonable betting odds

    Site development could be improved

    Over 100 premium casino games

    A limited selection of jackpot games

    Our Bet9Ja Review: popular for a reason
    Whenever you come across a site that already has thousands of
    members, it’s hard not to think that there has to be something driving its popularity.
    After exploring the Bet9Ja site, we can see that the combination of products on offer,
    along with the quality that you can experience
    for each of these individual products is clearly a reason why Bet9Ja is gaining ground in the African market.

    Top 3 Alternatives to Bet9Ja

    22 Bet
    22bet is a top-tier betting site for those looking to bet on sports such as soccer and basketball.

    It has a healthy range of markets for these kinds of sports, but on the downside, the range of bonuses is not quite as appealing as what you’ll find with other sites.

    1xBet
    1xBet is also a multi-product platform, yet the casino range is probably not as appealing
    as what you get with Bet9Ja. With that said,
    they have a formidable online sportsbook offering with live streaming available as an added bonus.
    If you want to sign up with this operator, remember to use our 1xbet Promo Code – YOHAIG.

    888 Sport
    As far as brands go, they don’t get much larger than 888
    Sport. This site has an awesome range of bonuses, a
    larger range of products than most, and it obviously
    has a fantastic reputation to go along with these measures.
    Truly, 888 Sport is one of the best in the business.

    New customers will enjoy live betting on sports markets on Bet9ja.

    They can sports bet on their phone mobile device (mobile app) on football matches,
    american football, horse racing, the premier
    league and more.

    Their wagering requirements include a minimum deposit
    of ₦100.

    Use the Bet9ja promotion code YOHAIG for a chance to win mini jackpots, titan jackpots, red titan jackpot or the gold titan jackpot.

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    By the beach! The tranquil sound of the waves, the crystal glow
    of white sands, and the glaring heat of the sun matched
    with breathtaking sceneries, sumptuous buffet and the most cordial
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    beach is only one of the most frequented attractions along the suburbs of the Gold Coast region of Australia.

    Here lies Surfer's Paradise a melting pot of social rendezvous,
    family attractions, recreational spots, shopping destinations, and restaurants for
    dining. Here you can stay away from urban pressures without being detached from the pleasures of the city.

    Nothing beats the warm embrace of Gold Coast accommodation which gives you the bliss of recreation and
    the joys of relaxation. This place wouldn't be called paradise for no reason.
    Its tempting façade is enough worth for the attention of tourists and locals.

    The beach alone is adequate reason to indulge.
    Aside from getting a tan, you can explore the coast
    on foot, dive into pristine waters or do adventure and challenge huge
    waves. Experience a subtle hype by taking ambling walks in the
    park, visit art galleries and be awed by showcased exhibits.

    Eclectic and alluring, Surfer's Paradise caters to variations in interest and differences in preference.
    For the young and daring, the place offers varied
    sports activities (parasailing, golfing, diving and bungee
    jumping) as well as heart pumping clubbing and partying at
    night.

    For the chic and fashionable, a wide array of shopping options awaits.
    From elite designs to bargains products, the beachfront stalls and the
    markets are a perfect stop. Surfers Paradise is beguiling in every way that you can imagine. With ample number of apartments and
    lodges, you sure can choose a divine spot for rest and slumber.

    Worry less about getting into places for Surfer's Paradise makes available accessible transportation. Truly a gem for visitors and travelers, this holiday destination vows to give the ultimate fun-packed experience for you and your family.

    Palazzo Colonnades is a boutique, high-rise holiday accommodation apartment in Surfers Paradise on the Gold
    Coast, QLD. Palazzo Colonnades provides a stylish retreat that
    positions you close to the wonders, action and the
    beauty of Surfers Paradise and the Gold Coast each day.

    For more information on , please visit

  • Hello would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re using?
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    P.S Apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask!

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